Final submissions

Instructions for the preparation of manuscripts to be submitted for review to  IJAL can be found under Guidelines for Authors. Articles accepted for publication and being submitted for production must conform to the guidelines set out below. All submissions at this final stage must be made through the Editorial Manager system. 


ALL material in a manuscript must be typed DOUBLE-SPACED: text, footnotes, references, quotations, tables, and all linguistic material. This is extremely important. Our typesetter will not accept single-spaced material, and any manuscript containing such material will be returned to the author.

ALL material in a manuscript is to be in 12-point type. A Unicode font must be used for all phonetic symbols and non-Latin characters. Smaller type may not be used for abstracts, tables, footnotes, references, etc. It is too difficult for the typesetter to read.

Final versions of papers must be submitted as a Unicode compliant text file, .doc or .rtf—we cannot accept .pdf or LaTeX files for production. Figures must be uploaded as separate .jpg, .tif, or .eps files. Audio material accompanying papers must be submited in .wav format.


The following format is to be used for the title page of a manuscript: title of paper (in caps, centered on page); name(s) of author(s) (in CAPS and SMALL CAPS, centered on page); author’s affiliation or location (in CAPS and SMALL CAPS, centered on page). For example:




The following format is to be used for reviews (note that the material is always to be typed double-spaced):

  • CROW TEXTS. Edited by D. V. Kaschube. IJAL-NATS Monograph no. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and University Microfilms International, 1978. Pp. iii+122. $8.75 (paper). ISBN: 9780226343433 022634343X.
  • STATISTICS FOR LINGUISTS. By Frank Anshen. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1978. Pp. 73. $3.95 (paper). ISBN: 0883771136 9780883771136.

Place the reviewer’s name and affiliation or location at the end of the review, before the footnotes or references (if any).

Cited forms and other linguistic material

In general, letters, words, or phrases are italicized in the text. Cited forms that appear in phonetic or phonemic transcription, enclosed in brackets or slashes, do not have to be italicized. Glosses appear in single quotation marks, both in the text and in interlinearized data. The first line of interlinearized data in inset examples is not italicized.

Interlinearized examples MUST conform to IJAL style as described in the stylesheet for linguistic examples. All data used in the paper must be attributed to the original source. Address questions on acceptable citation of forms to the editors.

IJAL aims (inter alia) to be a reliable archive of data on American indigenous languages. Since those data may later be used for purposes unimagined by the author of the original manuscript, all linguistic forms must be cited in an orthography that records all significant phonetic contrasts. Although symbols may be used in any way deemed appropriate by the author, a footnote to the first cited form should explain any deviation from common Americanist or IPA usage, as well as the value of ambiguous letters such as c, j, q, x, or y. Be sure that all diacritics are clear and easy for the typesetter to interpret.

Please remember when preparing linguistic material that the typesetter is not a linguist. Be sure the manuscript is legible and easy to follow. Complex linguistic material (e.g., tree diagrams) should be placed on separate sheets of paper, rather than included in the body of the text.


Notes are double-spaced and placed together at the end of the manuscript. They should NEVER appear at the bottom of pages within the text. Please use a paragraph indent for each note. The footnote number is to be raised above the line, with no enclosures (such as parentheses or brackets).

Number footnotes serially throughout the manuscript. The acknowledgement footnote (if any) is to be numbered; do not use an asterisk for this note.

Footnote numbers in the text are placed, following punctuation marks (if any), raised above the line, with no enclosures (such as parentheses or brackets).

Bibiliographic citations

When references are cited in text, the following conventions are to be used:

Harvey (1964) calculates a period of cultural continuity 6,000 to 11,000 years long.

Pride (1963:11) says of Yaitepec Chatino: “Word-final syllables are always stressed and carry a heavy functional load.”

Other publications about Chatino which the reader may want to consult are Boas (1913), Price (1961, 1965), and Upson (1956, 1960, 1968).

It is true that when Franz Boas did his fieldwork on Pochutec in 1912, Pochutla was surrounded by Zapotec towns (see Boas 1917:9–12; also Hasler 1975, 1976).

Use lowercase letters “a”, “b”, “c”, etc. to distinguish several items published in the same year by the same author(s):

Campbell and Langacker (1978a, 1978b) and Newman (1979a:207, 1979b:299).

When a single citation contains references to multiple works by different authors, these should be listed in chronological order:

The final feature of Tn phonology that affects forms in the cognate sets is sound symbolism, a well-known and well-documented phenomenon in the family (Watters 1980:121, 1992; Bishop 1984; Levy 1987:115–30; McQuown 1990:66; MacKay 1997:113–14; Smythe Kung 2006; McFarland 2006; Beck 2008).

Citations to personal communications should include the first name of the individual being cited (e.g., “Thom Hess (p.c.)” rather than “Hess (p.c.)”). A shorter form of the name may be used than would be required in a reference list or bibliography.


A complete alphabetical list of all references cited in the text and notes should appear at the end of a manuscript. This list is headed REFERENCES and must be double-spaced (do not use boldface). Only references actually cited in the paper (in text, footnotes, tables, etc.) should be included in the list of references.

All material in the references (except certain linguistic forms, etc.) appears in roman type. Do not italicize book titles, journal titles, etc. Please put the name(s) of the author(s) in CAPS and SMALL CAPS, and cite the full names of authors as given in the by-line of the original publication. Only the surname used to alphabetize the list of references—that is, the surname of the first-author—is presented before an author’s first name; all other names, including the names of editors of volumes containing cited articles, are presented in the order first name – last name.

If the reference is more than one line long, all following lines are to be indented. For example:


  • BRIGHT, WILLIAM, AND JAN MINNICK. 1966. Reduction rules in Fox kinship. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 22:281–88.
  • FIRESTONE, HOMER L. 1965. Description and Classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní Language. Janua Linguarum, Series Practica, no. 16. The Hague: Mouton.
  • HOMBERG, ALLAN. 1958. The Sirionó. Handbook of South American Indians, ed. Julian Steward, vol. 3, pp. 455–63. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • _____. 1969. Nomads of the Long Bow: The Sirionó of Eastern Bolivia. Rev. ed. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press.
  • LESSER, ALEXANDER. 1930. Some aspects of Siouan kinship. Proceedings of the International Congress of Americanists 23:563–71.
  • MURDOCK, GEORGE PETER. 1949. Social Structure. New York: Macmillan.
  • _____. 1959. Cross-language parallels in parental kin terms. Anthropological Linguistics 1, no. 9:1–5.
  • PRIEST, PERRY N.; ANNE M. PREIST; AND JOSEPH E. GRIMES. 1961. Simultaneous orderings in Sirionó (Guaraní). IJAL 27:335–44.
  • SHEFFLER, HAROLD W. 1972. Systems of kin classification: a structural typology. Kinship Studies in the Morgan Centennial Year, ed. Priscilla Reining, pp. 111–33. Washington, D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washington.
  • SHEFFLER, HAROLD W., AND FLOYD G. LOUNSBURY. 1971. A Study in Structural Semantics. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
  • ZAVALA, ROBERTO. 2000a. Inversion and other topics in the grammar of Olutec (Mixean). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon.
  • _____. 2000b. Simple, complex and multiple applicatives in Olutec (Mixean). Paper presented at the Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages of the Americas, San Francisco.

Note that the list of references is alphabetized by the surname of the (first) author. Multiple works by the same author(s) are presented in chronological order. Single-authored works by an author appear in the list before any co-authored works by the same first author. Works with the same first author are alphabetized by the surname of the second author (although this is still presented in first name – last name order):

  • SAPIR, EDWARD. 1907. Herder’s “Ursprung der Sprache”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • _____. 1910. Yana Texts. Berkeley University Press.
  • SAPIR, EDWARD, AND WILLIAM BRIGHT. 1992. Southern Paiute and Ute: Linguistics and ethnography. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
  • SAPIR, EDWARD, AND JEREMIAH CURTIN. 1909. Wishram texts, together with Wasco tales and myths. Lieden: Brill.
  • SAPIR, EDWARD, AND JUDITH IRVINE. 2002. The psychology of culture: A course of lectures. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Rerferring to on-line sources

In-text references to on-line sources should follow the same format as references to printed sources, using the Author (Year) and (Author Year) format, as appropriate. Where the author is unknown, the title of the source or the organization that produced it may be used.

On-line sources must be included in the references, formatted as follows:

  • BENTON, JOSEPH P. 1997. Aspect shift in Chichicapan Zapotec narrative discourse. SIL Mexico Workpapers 12:34–46. <>.
  • BOERSMA, PAUL, AND DAVID WEENIK. 2010. Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer. Version v5.1.42. <>.
  • SIL INTERNATIONAL. 2014. Fieldworks Language Explorer (FLEx). SIL Fieldworks.<>.
  • STATISTICS CANADA. 2011. 2011 Census of Canada: Topic-Based Tabulations—Languages Spoken Most Often at Home. <>.


Tables are to be numbered with Arabic (not Roman) numerals — TABLE 1, TABLE 2, etc. (note that TABLE is in CAPS), centered on the page. The title of a table (if there is one) is centered below, in CAPS and SMALL CAPS.

ALL material in each table should be typed double-spaced, with ample space between columns and wide margins. Tables should avoid vertical rules and should have a double horizontal rule at the top and a single horizontal rule at the bottom, before the notes (if any). Tables are to be submitted as separate files rather than in the main text of the paper. Please include the caption of the table in the file. Leave an indication (“TABLE 1 HERE”) in the main text file following the paragraph where the table is first mentioned.


Figures, like tables, are to be numbered serially with Arabic numerals. With few exceptions, figures are photographed and reproduced in IJAL from original copy or from print-outs of graphic files in standard formats (.jpg, .tiff, .eps). Therefore, it is the responsibility of the author to submit camera-ready artwork for each figure in a manuscript. Figures are to be submitted as separate files rather than in the main text of the paper. Please include the caption of the figure in the file. Leave an indication (“FIGURE 1 HERE”) in the main text file following the paragraph where the figure is first mentioned.

Saying thanks

Reviewers and Associate Editors for IJAL are volunteers and dedicate a good deal of time and energy to evaluating papers and helping to improve submissions. Including a note thanking these people in the Acknowledgements is a nice touch, and greatly appreciated. Authors are also encouraged to acknowledge consultants and communites that have participated in or supported their research whenever possible.

Other questions about style

For general questions of style (e.g., grammar, punctuation, abbreviation, etc.), please consult The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010). Specific questions on how to prepare manuscripts for publication in IJAL should be sent to the managing editor, Joe Muszynski (